agglomeration Formation of larger coal or ash particles by smaller particles sticking together.
anthracite A hard, black, shiny coal very high in fixed carbon and low in volatile matter, hydrogen and oxygen.
biogas Energy produced from the anaerobic digestion of sewage and industrial waste.
bituminous coal A relatively soft dark brown to black coal, lower in fixed carbon than anthracite, but higher in volatile matter, hydrogen and oxygen.
char Solid carbonaceous residue that results from incomplete combustion of organic material.
coal rank Classification of coal in terms of its chemical and physical properties.
co-generation Simultaneous or sequential production of two or more forms of useful energy from a single primary energy source.
coking coal Coal with a quality that allows the production of a coke suitable to support a blast furnace charge.
cover:coal ratio Proportion of overburden to coal prior to mining.
CV Calorific value, energy content measured as the heat released on complete combustion in air or oxygen.
EXITO Extractive Industry Training Organisation
fossil fuels Coal, natural gas, LPG and fuels derived from crude oil (including petrol and diesel). They have been formed over long periods of time from ancient organic matter.
GJ Gigajoules. 109 joules. A generic unit of energy.
GDP Gross Domestic Product. A measure of the value of goods and services produced in a year.
greenhouse gases Gases that increase the temperature of the earth’s surface. They include water vapour, tropospheric ozone, chlorofluorocarbons, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane and nitrous oxide.
hard coal Coal with a high proportion of carbon to oxygen.
IEA International Energy Agency
integration The process whereby firms combine or merge to form larger units.
joint venture An undertaking of a risk with another party.
lignite Brownish-black, woody-structured coal, lower in fixed carbon than either anthracite or bituminous coal, but higher in volatile matter and oxygen.
metallurgical coal Coal suitable for steel production.
mine roof Layer of rock or coal over an underground mine working.
natural gas Mainly methane occurring naturally in underground deposits. It may be associated or free gas.
NZMIA New Zealand Minerals Industry Association
opencast Mining by removal of the surface layers, working from above, not from shafts or tunnels.
overburden Rock and materials that must be removed prior to mining the mineral deposit beneath it.
PJ Petajoules. 1015 joules. A generic unit of energy.
reducing agent/reductant Substance that brings about a conversion to metal by oxidation and losing electrons.
RMA Resource Management Act
SOE State Owned Enterprise. A commercial operation governed by SOE regulations, whose shareholder is the Government.
splint coal Hard dull coal which occurs in bands in coal seams. It does not burn readily.
spot market A market pertaining to a here and now point in time.
steaming coal See thermal coal.
sub-bituminous Glossy-black, non-agglomerating coal lower than bituminous coal in fixed carbon and with more volatile matter and oxygen than the latter.
thermal coal Coal used for steam raising and space heating purposes, including all anthracite coals and bituminous coals not included under coking coal.
try pot Pot for extracting oil from fat by heating.